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 What is the design

 It is the assignment to build an object or system or to carry out an activity or process, or the result of that plan or customization in the form of a prototype, product, or process.  Expression of design expresses the process of improving the design.  In some cases, the direct creation of a topic without an explicit plan (such as in craftsmanship, some engineering, coding, and graphic design) can be considered a design activity.  

The design generally must meet certain objectives and constraints, may take into account aesthetic, functional, economic, or socio-political considerations, and be predictable for interaction with a particular environment.  Major examples of designs include architectural diagrams, engineering drawings, business management, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns.

 The person who produces a design is called a designer, which is a term often used for people who work professionally in one of the different areas of design – usually specifying the area they are dealing with (eg textile designer, fashion designer, product designer, concept designer, web designer  (website designer or interior designer), but also others such as architects and engineers. 

 The designer's hierarchy of activities is called the design process, possibly using design methods.  The inspirational design process can be short or long and wraparound, including grand research, negotiation, reflection, modeling, interactive modification, and redesign.

 design and process

 There is a fundamental disagreement about how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs.  Case Durst and Judith Dekhuis, the designers themselves, have argued there are many ways to describe design processes and argue in two fundamental and fundamentally different ways, both of which have several names.  The dominant view has been called the rational model, technical problem solving and the reasonable view of reason.

The alternative view has been called thinking about action, co-evolution, cooperation, and a work-centered perspective.

 design systems

 It's really hard to build.  These systems force designers to think of their designs in a more abstract way than might be comfortable.  They force developers to write down design subtleties that may or may not have been made with a system in mind.  Design systems help with visual consistency and code reuse, but building the system itself comes with its own set of challenges

 Start with high-level styles

 Designers should start designing by being comfortable.  If they need to jump right in and start designing components, that's great.  If they want to start with a full-page sequel, good!  If they want to create a color palette based on the Fibonacci sequence or something, sure, that works too.

 If you are creating a design system, no matter where the design starts, development should often begin.  Create universal patterns and create reusable items.  The first code you write should be static so the rest of the code stays topped up.

 Starting development with global styles is important because of the cascading nature of CSS.  As the style sheet grows, changes in general styles become more difficult and dangerous.  If you are familiar with the ITCSS methodology, I am referring to the upper parts of the inverted triangle.

 Where do you start…

 printing:Get custom lines in place.  Add default styles for headings and paragraphs.  A few classes arise for using arbitrary font sizes.  Perhaps it symbolizes a way to prevent the length of the lines from getting uncomfortably long.  Almost any type of content can be represented as text, so it's worth making sure your foundation for typography is solid.

 Color: Build some variables that represent your site's brand colors.  These variables can be used while building components to keep things constant.  Naming the colors also helps in communication between designers and developers.

 Link Styles: Create patterns for inline links.  Whether it's the classic blue and underlined links or something more personalized, your website will almost certainly use them.  The web is just a group of pages linked together.

 Button Styles: Create a set of categories to change the color and size of your buttons.  Creating a system early can prevent you from recreating buttons in multiple places.


This will help keep things visually stable (good for users) and keep the code maintainable (good for you).  If you ever need a special button for a special occasion, you can decide whether or not it should be a part of that system based on the number of styles it shares with the existing buttons.

 This is a relatively shortlist, and that's on purpose.  The designer should be able to pair up with a developer and create styles for these elements in just a few sessions.  Put the HTML for all of these elements on one page, then scroll down in your style sheets.

 The important thing here is to distinguish between global and local patterns.  Build reusable items so that they can exist outside the context of the wave in a controlled manner.  Once you've designed this small list of items, you'll get a powerful toolkit for creating new pages within your browser.  You can iterate smoothly.

 The design can be widely applied in various fields such as art, engineering, and production.

 design and art

 Today, the term design is mostly used for what was formerly called applied arts.  Perhaps the new term for something very old was initiated by Raymond Loew and his teachings at the Bauhaus and HfG Ulm in Germany during the twentieth century.

 The boundaries between art and design are blurred, largely due to the range of applications of both the term art and the term design.  Applied arts can include comprehensive industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, and decorative arts that include the theme of traditional crafts.

  In the graphic arts (making two-dimensional images ranging from photography to illustration), fine art and commercial art are overwhelmingly unique, based on the context in which the work is produced and how it is traded.

 To some extent, some approaches to creating work, such as employing anticipation, are shared across disciplines in applied arts and fine arts.  Mark Gitlin, the writer, suggests that design principles are 'built-in' and 'natural' and part of our 'sense of goodness'.  However, the intended application and the resulting business context will change significantly.

 design and engineering

 In engineering, design is a component of the engineering process.  Many overlapping approaches and processes can be seen when comparing Product design, industrial design, and engineering.  The American Heritage Dictionary defines design as Visualizing or thinking in the mind;  Fabricate, formulating a plan, and achieving engineering as follows: 

The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, mechanisms, processes, and systems.  "Both are forms of problem-solving with the realized distinction being the application of scientific and mathematical principles."  The increasingly scientific focus of engineering in practice, however, has raised the importance of more 'human-centered' fields of design. How much science is applied in design is a question of what is known as 'science', along with the question of what counts as science, there is social science versus excellence.  Scientists at Xerox PARC, between design versus engineering, in moving minds versus moving atoms, (perhaps in contradiction with the etymology of the term engineering-en genier from the Latin geni meaning genius that presumes the existence of the mind and not corn.

 design and production

 The relationship between design and production is one of planning and execution.  In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in carrying out the processDesign involves problem solving and creativity.  In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process.  A design may also simply be a plan that does not involve a production or engineering process, although a working knowledge of these processes can generally be expected by designers.  In some cases, it may be unnecessary or impractical to expect a designer with the broad, interdisciplinary knowledge required for these designs to have detailed specialist knowledge of how the product is produced.

 Design and production are integrated into many creative professional functions, which means that problem-solving is part of the follow-up and vice versa.  As the cost of rearranging increases, so does the need to separate design from production.  For example, a high-budget project, such as a skyscraper, wanted to separate the structure from the (production) building.  A low-budget project like a locally printed local office call brochure can be rearranged and printed dozens of times for the low cost of some paper, a few drops of ink, and less than an hour's wages for a publisher's desktop.

 This does not mean that production never includes problem solving or creativity, nor does design always include creativity.  Designs are rarely perfect and sometimes they are repetitive.  A design flaw may cost the production site to use creativity or problem-solving ability to make up for what was overlooked in the design process.  Similarly, the design may be a simple iteration (copy) of a previously known solution, requiring minimal, if any, creative or problem-solving skills from the designer.

 design process

 It is the identification of routine action steps away from the expected result.  Operations are (in general) treated as a product of design, not as a design method.  The term was produced by the industrial design of chemical processes.  With the increasing complexities of the information age, consultants and executives have found the term useful for depicting business processes as well as manufacturing processes.